William Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Aimé Césaire’s Une Tempête and Dev Virahsawmy’s Toufann as Intertexts
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This dissertation is entitled “William Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Aimé Césaire’s Une Tempête and Dev Virahsawmy’s Toufann as Intertexts”. It aims to investigate how William Shakespeare, as a Western bard, influences and gives an impetus to the non-Westerners mainly the postcolonial writers and playwrights to follow his path, and sometimes, to respond to his negative portrayal of the non-westerners. The post-colonial writers tend to answer back what Shakespeare embedded about non-westerners in his works in general and The Tempest in particular. Accordingly, in this research, we have investigated in The Tempest, Une Tempête and Toufann how Aimé Césaire and Dev Virahsawmy were influenced, positively and negatively, by William Shakespeare. In order to realize the objective of this research, we have opted for two important literary theories. These theories concern the Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin’s dialogism, and the Martinican psychiatrist Frantz Fanon’s postcolonial theory. We have divided our dissertation into two chapters. In the introduction we have introduced and given some explanation of the theme of our research including the review of literature in which we have mentioned some works and critics that in one way or another dealt with the three playwrights and studied them from different perspectives. Afterwards, we have introduced our problematic which concentrates on the analysis of how the three playwrights clash over the referent of colonialism and all what the latter implies on the one hand, while on the other hand, Césaire and Virahsawmy through their adaptations have stylized to a great extent the English national icon “Shakespeare”. To analyze this theme, we have divided our research paper into two chapters. In the first chapter which is entitled Shakespeare, Césaire and Virahsawmy: Life, Times and Influence, we have provided the reader with useful information about the historical events which took place in England, Martinique and Mauritius when, respectively, The Tempest, Une Tempête and Toufann were written and performed. The second chapter contains two sections. The first section which is entitled Césaire and Virahsawmy as Hidden Polemics explains the clash and the conflict of ideologies among the three playwrights that can be shown at the level of the setting, characters and themes, as well as language whereas the second section is devoted to the analysis of how Césaire and Virahsawmy have stylized Shakespeare by imitating his way of writing and borrowing from him many aspects related to the form as well as to the content in relation to the setting, characters and themes, in addition to language. Finally, in the conclusion, we have given an overview about the ideas that are developed in the present dissertation at the same time we have confirmed our hypotheses which have been introduced in the introduction.